Why We Train: The risk for journalists covering civil unrest is rising. For the first time in over a decade, more journalists were killed covering social strife by late 2011 than were murdered for their reporting or killed in combat, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists. In 2010, one in four journalist deaths were due to their coverage of unrest or similar dangerous assignments.
Even if fatal injuries can be avoided, research in 2006 by the U.S. National Institutes of Health shows that bystanders to unrest- such as journalists- can become severely injured during clashes involving protesters, paramilitaries and police with soft tissue and bone injuries from projectiles and long-term skin and respiratory damage from chemical irritants.
The British Chartered Institute of Journalists warned in the aftermath of riots that swept Britain in 2011 that media employers should be obligated to provide special training and equipment to journalists assigned to cover civil disturbances.
Why It Matters: Despite worldwide attention paid to the street demonstrations of the "Arab Spring," the coverage of protests, riots, and disturbances remains a dangerous pursuit for media professionals. In the first nine months of 2011, seven journalists were killed while covering civil unrest in Tunisia, Egypt, Bahrain and Yemen, according to CPJ data.
In the past two years, journalists covering protests in the Kurdistan region of Iraq have been targeted for reprisal attacks, according to Human Rights Watch, while reporters in China, England, Northern Ireland, and Kashmir have been assaulted while covering unrest, according to news reports.
Journalists also risk arrests and detention for their coverage of political demonstrations or rallies. In 2008, two Burmese journalists were handed down seven year prison sentences for filming antigovernment protests, as documented by CPJ.
Why We Train: Multiple studies have underscored the need for proactive training in sexual assault risk reduction techniques and self-help measures. A 2002 report showed that participants who had been trained in sexual assault prevention reported a significant reduction in victimization after completing training. A 2005 study commissioned by the U.S. National Institute of Justice found that potential rape victims who resisted their attackers physically and verbally significantly reduced the probability that a rape would be completed and did not significantly increase the risk of serious injury.
"In particular, certain actions reduce the risk of rape more than 80 percent compared to nonresistance. The most effective actions, according to victims, are attacking or struggling against their attacker, running away, and verbally warning the attacker," wrote NIJ about the study. "[T]he only self-defense tactics that appear to increase the risk of injury significantly were those that were ambiguous and not forceful. These included stalling, cooperating and screaming from pain or fear."
The training should include exercises in not just physical self-defense, but also psychological assertiveness. Research from a 2006 Ohio University study showed that self-defense training alone increased defensive behavior but did not help with assertiveness or avoidance. Programs that focused on psychological and physical assertiveness in the face of sexual attack, however, did result in an increase in self-assuredness and setting mental boundaries and, thus, higher rates of avoidance.
Even when a rape has occurred, women who used some form of resistance had better mental health outcomes than those who did not resist, according to one study. For those who have suffered from sexual attack, the primary goal is emotional self-care. Research in 2004 indicates that 47% of sexual assault victims suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms up to 9 months after being attacked.
Why It Matters: Sexual assault of reporters and media personnel has long been an unspoken trauma, stigmatized and rarely discussed. But after the high-profile assault in Egypt in early 2011 of CBS News correspondent Lara Logan, the risks and pain associated with sexual harassment and attacks have been opened for discussion. New reports from organizations like CPJ have indicated that sexual violence against journalists is a real and growing concern.
Though statistics are difficult to ascertain due to the sensitivity of the attacks, a survey of female war correspondents sponsored by INSI in 2005 reported that 55% of women journalists working overseas had experienced sexual harassment, and almost 7% said they had experienced sexual abuse. Nor is the problem limited to women. Male journalists have also begun to come forward to provide first-hand accounts of how they were sexually assaulted.
Why We Train: Despite the prevalence of firewalls and secure servers, 84% of the more than 30,000 websites that the Web Application Security Consortium tested in 2006 showed vulnerability to scripted attacks. Anonymity and security often depend upon the ability to keep identities and information secure from these very assaults. IFEX warns that bloggers and other online journalists have become frequent targets of government agencies or criminal actors who use digital hacking attacks to access identities and information. Some observers have even gone so far as to term the digital repression by certain governments- Iran, in particular- a cyber war.
UN cybersecurity advisor Raoul Chiesa warned in 2010 that a lack of technical security training and skills among computer users, businesses, and governments has created the biggest threat to digital security today. With today's ever-increasing number of digital security threats- over 600 threats were detected for smartphones alone in September 2011- journalists, human rights defenders and others must take measures to defend against them.
Why It Matters: For even the average computer user, the protection of their private digital data is a major concern. Microsoft's security division uncovered over 400 million unique security threats to home computers in 2010 alone. For journalists, human rights defenders, and others who depend upon sensitive data, this risk is even higher. Countries like China are routinely implicated in spying on the private data of journalists. In November 2011 Colombia disbanded its main intelligence agency after it was found to be routinely using electronic surveillance against journalists and others.
One observer noted in a late 2011 New York Times op-ed that many ethically-minded journalists are willing to go to jail to protect their sources from being named in court. Yet many, if not most, of the same journalists don't bother learning the digital security skills they need to protect their sources from being discovered through cyber-surveillance.
Though Internet communications were classified by the UN in 1999 as a form of speech protected by international law, the growing use of social media and online publishing as political and journalistic tools continues to draw the ire of repressive states. In September 2011 a Mexican editor who had used social media as one outlet to report on organized crime was found dismembered and beheaded. Her head was placed on a planter, in a clear message to others, alongside a computer, mouse, cables, headphones and speakers.
Why We Train: Violence is a common tool of many groups. Corrupt government officials, terrorist groups and other irregular armed organizations, and criminal syndicates -often working in collusion with one another- have all assassinated journalists, according to CPJ data analyzed in the Harvard International Review. At least 600 journalists have been murdered for their reporting since 1992. Moreover the murderers have gotten away with blanket impunity in nearly nine out of ten journalist murders.
In recent years, drug trafficking organizations and corresponding acts of violence have consumed nations like Mexico. Mexican authorities say the conflict there has claimed 40,000 lives since 2006. Organized crime has also grown in nations from Russia to Guatemala.
Irregular armed groups have gang raped tens of thousands of women and girls in recent years in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Members of a political group have been implicated in the massacre of 57 people- including about 30 journalists- in the Philippines in an attack that also involved the sexual mutilation of most of the 22 female victims.
Why It Matters: No less than 15 journalists have been murdered with impunity in Honduras since a June 2009 coup, according to Reporters Without Borders. At least 70 journalists have been murdered in Mexico during a rise in drug-related violence, and another 13 journalists have disappeared, according to a joint report by the United Nations and the Organization of American States. At least 19 journalists have been murdered in Russia since 2000, according to CPJ.
Romanian investigative reporter Paul Radu demonstrated the importance of electronic security to investigative journalists in the Balkans and beyond in his pioneering digital guide to tracking corruption. Additionally, crime reporters in the Balkans often must learn to detect car bombs and watch for surveillance, while their colleagues in Russia have learned to share sensitive information with a wide pool of associates.
Journalists who live and work along with their families in nations where they face constant risk endure extreme stress. One 2004 study found that many journalists covering high-stress assignments suffered from sleep deprivation and could eventually develop post-traumatic stress disorder. In response to the increased targeting of journalists for their work, UNESCO issued a formal report in 2010 identifying the killing of journalists based upon their coverage as a major threat to freedom worldwide.
Why We Train: The combat related deaths of six journalists in Libya in 2011, including several highly experienced photographers, underscores the ongoing risks of covering armed conflicts. In Iraq, no less than 52 journalists died combat-related deaths from 2003 through 2010. By 2006, the Iraq war had already outpaced wars in Algeria, Colombia, and the Balkans in sheer number of journalists killed. Yet no matter the locale, covering conflict has accounted for 17% of total journalist deaths from 1992 to present, according to CPJ research.
Though combat training led by ex-military personnel has been common in the media industry for more than a decade, compulsory training for conflict journalists has become an industry standard only in recent years. As Joanne Lisosky of Pacific Lutheran University highlighted in 2011, news organizations from Reuters to the BBC to the Australian Broadcasting Company now require their correspondents to undergo hostile environment training. Freelance journalists who don't benefit from corporate sponsorship can seek out organizations like the Rory Peck Trust, which funds journalist security training in memory of a slain freelancer.
Why It Matters: Traditionally, the image of the war correspondent involves tenacious reporters filing stories from the front lines, getting as close as possible to combat. While these risks are still present in many conflicts, increasingly the war zone of the future is decentralized, scattered, and lacking a clear demarcation between combatants.
The growing role of insurgencies, first in Iraq, and then in Afghanistan- which in 2010 saw on average one assassination per day- leaves journalists increasingly vulnerable. New risks such as improvised explosive devices, which claimed an estimated 20 lives per day in Iraq in 2007, add further unpredictability to the battlefield.
With the rise of nontraditional armies such as the rebel National Transitional Council in Libya, journalists are seen as targets by regimes in distress. A 2011 UNESCO report cautioned that pro-regime fighters in Libya were actively targeting journalists through arrests, beatings, harassment, and attacks on hotels that sheltered media personnel.
Why We Train: No single tragedy better illustrates the need for emergency first aid training than the loss of Tim Hetherington. The experienced photojournalist and videographer died of an open femoral artery wound in Libya in the spring of 2011, leaving his colleagues wondering if he might have survived had anyone nearby had a tourniquet and knew how to use it.
For emergency first-aid training to be effective, however, it must be conducted under conditions that simulate chaos and stress. As 2009 research indicates, training only in first aid increased the effectiveness of emergency help but did not guarantee that those with training actually felt comfortable enough to assist in an emergency. Training in first aid coupled with emphasis on emergency situations, however, did lead to an increase in both effectiveness and confidence.
Why It Matters: Research in the UK in 2010 indicated that 59% of respondents did not feel confident enough to attempt first aid procedures on an injured person. The International Committee for the Red Cross, acknowledging the need for practice-based first aid, provided emergency first aid training to journalists in Pakistan after that country was identified as one of the world's most dangerous for media professionals.
A number of veteran photographers and colleagues of the late Tim Hetherington have begun speaking out about the need for all journalists covering combat to receive emergency first-aid training.
Why We Train: The development of personal safety training for the media industry comes on the heels of declarations by human rights authorities in the Gambia, Colombia and Mexico, and Honduras against the targeting of journalists and human rights activists for harassment and exploitation.
While the need for training to lessen safety risks for journalists and other frontline researchers is growing, the content of that training is still in flux. Former security trainers from the US Department of Defense showed in 2006 that personal safety and security programs are essential but often ineffective, thanks to their reliance on lectures, regulations, and inflexible rules. Instead, the trainers recommend practice-based training that highlights real-world scenarios.
This was seconded by crime prevention researcher Paul Ekblom in his analysis of crime prevention programs in the UK, where he found hands-on training to be essential.
Why It Matters: Since the tragic capture and murder of journalist Daniel Pearl in Pakistan in 2002, journalists and human rights advocates have become frequent targets of abductions and personal attacks. Data compiled by CPJ indicates that 57 journalists were abducted between the years of 2004-2008 during the conflict in Iraq alone. Iraq was far from the only kidnapping hotspot for journalists during that period, as cases in Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Uganda can attest.
In their 2007 and 2010 "Safety of Journalist" reports, UNESCO has cited kidnapping and abductions as a serious safety risk for journalists, both local and foreign. Additionally, Amnesty International identifies human rights defenders as at significant risk for detention or abduction.
Why We Train: Training has had a measurable impact on lowering the incidences of PTSD amongst journalists and human rights defenders exposed to trauma. After being educated on stress and trauma management, 89% of social workers in a stress management training course said that they felt less likely to become overwhelmed and burnt out.
Graduate research in 2011 from the University of Missouri showed that journalists also benefit from stress management training. In particular, data showed that employer-sponsored training could prevent emotionally traumatized reporters from compromising their reporting.
A growing consensus shows that employers bear some responsibility for psychologically preparing journalists for covering trauma, as evidenced through a 2000 court case in New Zealand in which a crime photographer was awarded damages for witnessing trauma on-the-job.
Gradually, the awareness of trauma is increasing amongst the journalism profession, with a 2007 study showing journalism graduate students actively seek out stress management training in their curriculum.
Why It Matters: After assessing a pool of journalists returning from war, psychiatrist Dr. Anthony Feinstein estimated in 2009 that nearly 12% of conflict journalists suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder. Likewise, Feinstein and his colleagues found that journalists dealing with trauma were more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs, with 21% identifying as chronically depressed. Despite these risks, a separate 2003 study of photojournalists covering traumatic events found that only 25% of the respondents were offered counseling services by their employers.
Additionally, a 2001 study on international aid and development workers reported that 30% of respondents suffered from identifiable symptoms of PTSD.
Why We Train: Situational and cultural responsiveness is a skill often acquired by years of experience and instinct in the field. Yet research shows that training can help improve understanding and adaptations to stressful situations in unfamiliar settings. Studies with expatriate business people in 2008 showed that cross-cultural education could make a positive impact on situational awareness and decision making in foreign countries.
Applying a cultural lens outside of the business world was equally effective. US military studies in 2008 trained negotiators to adapt to Iraqi culture under stressful wartime conditions, and found a sharp increase in negotiating skill among novices after hands-on simulations. US Army studies on peacekeeping effectiveness also found a need for cultural training as part of comprehensive training for keeping the peace after civil conflicts.
Why It Matters: With journalists, non-profit workers, and peacekeeping forces traveling to more regions of the globe than ever, applicable, situation-based cultural awareness training is increasingly seen as essential. Reports from leading research psychologists, compiled in 2009, highlight the importance that situational and cultural awareness has played under stressful conditions in places like Iraq, Sudan, and Kosovo. In 2006, the US military's Combat Studies Institute issued a report identifying cultural training as a top priority, particularly for military interventions in the Arab world. For journalists and human rights workers whose work is contingent upon the crucial role of an interpreter, driver, fixer, or translator, the international body of professional interpreters called for cultural respect and understanding as a way to protect vulnerable locals from exploitation and reprisal attacks.
Why We Train: Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found in a 2010 survey that the majority of human rights and development NGO respondents had begun to consider security as a major priority, but that the communication of security information to staff should be made a higher priority. As a 2010 report from policy analysts at Humanitarian Outcomes reminds, however, greater security always comes with trade-offs, such as lack of mobility and access. This balancing act is at the heart of professional security management today.
Why It Matters: As non-profit and media organizations adapt to changing international threats, the need for frequent security risk assessments and reviews becomes a part of doing business.
Only in recent years have frontline non-governmental organizations begun to comprehensively address the security needs of their staff and field researchers. Emerging new media organizations with contributors in many locations are just beginning to address the security needs of their networks as well as people on the ground.
Most major international news organizations years ago embraced the concept of providing journalists with equipment training to deal with contingencies from covering armed conflicts to coping with post-traumatic stress. But many smaller news organizations are still getting up to speed. News organizations of all kinds are only beginning to address emergency planning for natural disasters as well as manmade mass emergencies.
1. CPJ, "Journalists Killed on Dangerous Assignment in 2011." http://cpj.org/killed/2011/dangerous-assignment.php
2. CPJ, "In journalist security field, maturing and understanding." http://www.cpj.org/killed/2010/
3. NCBI, "Medical management of the traumatic consequences of civil unrest incidences." http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17192122
4. Chartered Institute of Journalists, "Riot assaults no surprise." http://cioj.co.uk/cioj-press-releases/riot-assaults-no-surprise.html
5. CPJ, "Journalists Killed on Dangerous Assignment in 2011." http://cpj.org/killed/2011/dangerous-assignment.php
6. Human Rights Watch, "Iraqi Kurdistan: Growing Effort to Silence Media." http://www.hrw.org/news/2011/05/24/iraqi-kurdistan-growing-effort-silence-media
7. The Standard, "Pressed on all fronts." http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=30&art_id=87640&sid=25310939&con_type=1
8. Journalism.co.uk, "London riots: journalists attacked across city." http://www.journalism.co.uk/news/london-riots-journalists-attacked-across-city/s2/a545531/
9. The Guardian, "Photographer shot in Belfast riot." http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/greenslade/2011/jun/22/northernireland-press-association
10. Al Jazeera, "Photojournalists beaten by police in Kashmir." http://aljazeera.com/news/asia/2011/08/201181919133638149.html
11. CPJ, "2010 Prison Census." http://www.cpj.org/imprisoned/2010.php
12. National Violence Against Women Prevention Research Center. "The Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Risk Reduction Program: A Multisite Investigation." http://www.musc.edu/vawprevention/research/sa_risk_reductions.shtml
13. Gidycz, Christine A. et. al. "The Evaluation of a Sexual Assault Self-Defense and Risk-Reduction Program for College Women." http://www.itdsystems.com/articles/Evaluation%20of%20Self-Defense%20Program%20for%20College%20Women.pdf
14. Ferrell, Shanna C. "Correlates of risk recognition and response." http://jivresearch.org/jivr/index.php/jivr/thesis/view/13
15. Sochting, Ingrid et. al. "Sexual Assault of Women: Prevention Efforts and Risk Factors." http://www.hawaii.edu/hivandaids/Sexual_Assault_of_Women__
16. CPJ, "The silencing crime: Sexual violence and journalists." http://www.cpj.org/reports/2011/06/silencing-crime-sexual-violence-journalists.php
17. INSI, "Democracy, War and the Media- Uneasy Bedfellows All Round." http://www.newssafety.com/stories/insi/wrw.htm
18. CPJ, "Umar Cheema: 'Their efforts to intimidate me backfired'." http://cpj.org/blog/2011/04/umar-cheema-their-efforts-to-intimidate-me-backfir.php
19. Security 4 All, "Web application security statistics." http://blog.security4all.be/2007/04/web-application-security-statistics.html
20. IFEX, "Journalists, cyber activists in the line of fire." http://www.ifex.org/middle_east_north_africa/2011/04/29/line_of_fire/
21. Infosec Island. "An Interview with U.N. Cybersecurity Expert Raoul Chiesa." https://www.infosecisland.com/blogview/3690-An-Interview-with-UN-Cybersecurity-Expert-Raoul-Chiesa.html
22. GlobalVoices, "Cyber 'long war' continues in Iran." http://advocacy.globalvoicesonline.org/2011/01/29/cyber-“long-war”-continues-in-iran/
23. Securelist, "Monthly Malware Statistics: September 2011." http://www.securelist.com/en/analysis/204792195/Monthly_Malware_
24. CNet, "Microsoft marks anti-malware anniversary with stats." http://news.cnet.com/8301-13506_3-20018130-17.html
25. Fast Company, "Google's Sergey Brin Talks Hacking: Chinese Human Rights Activists Targeted." http://www.fastcompany.com/1562186/googles-sergey-brin-talks-hacking-chinese-human-rights-activists-targeted
26. Associated Press, "Colombia's president dissolves domestic spy agency." http://news.yahoo.com/colombias-president-dissolves-domestic-spy-agency-001940216.html
27. CPJ, "Colombian government tells CPJ it 'rejects' illegal spying." http://www.cpj.org/blog/2010/02/colombian-government-tells-cpj-it-rejects-illegal.php
28. New York Times, "When Secrets Aren't Safe With Journalists." http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/27/opinion/without-computer-security-sources-secrets-arent-safe-with-journalists.html?_r=1
29. FrontLine Defenders, "Digital Security & Privacy For Human Rights Defenders." http://www.frontlinedefenders.org/esecman/
30. Fox News, "Mexican Journalist Beheaded For Using Social Media to Cover Crime." http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2011/09/26/mexican-journalist-beheaded-for-using-social-media-to-cover-crime/
Syndicates & Terrorists
31. Harvard International Review, "Murdering with Impunity." http://hir.harvard.edu/pressing-change/murdering-with-impunity
32. CPJ, "Journalists Murdered since 1992." http://www.cpj.org/killed/murdered.php
33. CPJ, "Impunity and Journalists Killed since 1992." http://www.cpj.org/killed/impunity.php
34. Voice of America, "Drug War in Mexico Raises Human Rights Concerns." http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Drug-War-in-Mexico-Raises-Human-Rights-Concerns-125263194.html
35. Stratfor Global Intelligence, "Organized Crime in Russia." http://www.stratfor.com/memberships/114821/analysis/organized_crime_russia
36. The Economist, "Guatemala and organised crime: Reaching the untouchables." http://www.economist.com/node/15663302
37. The Christian Science Monitor, "Congo war leaves legacy of sexual violence against women." http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Africa/2010/0630/Congo-war-leaves-legacy-of-sexual-violence-against-women
38. New York Times, "Philippine Official Says Victims Were Sexually Assaulted." http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/28/world/asia/28phils.html
39. Reporters Without Borders, "Journalist who supported ousted president becomes 15th killed in 18 months." http://en.rsf.org/honduras-journalist-who-supported-ousted-10-09-2011,40964.html
40. Al Jazeera, "UN: Mexico fifth dangerous for journalists." http://english.aljazeera.net/news/americas/2011/10/201110254559802945.html
41. CPJ, "New promises, old results in unsolved Togliatti murders." http://www.cpj.org/reports/2011/10/new-promises-old-results-in-unsolved-togliatti-mur.php
42. ICFJ, "The Balkans: Tracking Corruption." http://www.icfj.org/knight-international-journalism-fellowships/fellowships/tracking-corruption-balkans-and-beyond
43. Knight Center, "Bullet-proof vests offered to protect Mexican journalists." http://knightcenter.utexas.edu/blog/bullet-proof-vests-offered-protect-mexican-journalists
44. American Journalism Review, "Playing Defense." http://www.ajr.org/article.asp?id=4884
45. Czech, T. "Journalists and trauma: a brief overview." http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15481478
46. UNESCO, "Safety of journalists." http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/intergovernmental-programmes/ipdc/special-initiatives/safety-of-journalists/
47. Guardian, "Iraq war logs: US fails to answer for deaths of journalists." http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/oct/22/iraq-war-logs-deaths-journalists
48. CPJ, "Journalists killed in 2006." http://cpj.org/reports/2006/12/killed-06.php
49. CPJ, "CPJ Killed Database." http://www.cpj.org/killed/cpj-database.xls
50. Lisosky, Joanne M. et. al. "War on Words: Who Should Project Journalists?" http://www.amazon.com/War-Words-Should-Protect-Journalists/dp/0313385572/ref=sr_1_3?ie=UTF8&qid=1320087972&sr=8-3
51. The Rory Peck Trust, "Rory Peck Training Fund." http://www.rorypecktrust.org/page/3032/Rory+Peck+Training+Fund
52. New York Times, "Insurgent violence on rise in Afghanistan, UN says." http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2010/06/20/
53. USA Today, "IEDs kill 21,000 Iraqi civilians 2005-2010." http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2011-01-12-1Aied12_ST_N.htm
54. UNESCO, "Director-General condemns violence and intimidation of journalists in Libya." http://www.unesco.org/new/en/media-services/single-view/news/
Emergency First Aid
55. New York Magazine, "The War Photographers That Tim Hetherington and Chris Hondros Left Behind." http://nymag.com/news/features/war-photojournalists-2011-5/
56. Annals of Emergency Medicine, "Effectiveness of Nonresuscitative First Aid Training in Laypersons: A Systematic Review." http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(08)02005-2/abstract
57. St. John Ambulance, "Dramatic numbers dying from lack of first aid." http://www.sja.org.uk/sja/about-us/latest-news/news-archive/news-stories-from-2010/april/lack-of-first-aid-costs-lives.aspx
58. ICRC, "Pakistan: teaching journalists to save lives." http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/news-release/pakistan-news-270710.htm
59. New York Times, "Photographing Conflict for the First Time." http://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/10/25/young-in-libya/
60. allAfrica, "AU Urged to Stop Crime Against Journalists." http://allafrica.com/stories/201110311409.html
61. Inter-American Dialogue, "Violence against Journalists and Impunity." http://www.thedialogue.org/violenceagainstjournalistsandimpunity
62. CEJIL, "CEJIL Condemns Crimes Against Journalists in Honduras." http://cejil.org/en/comunicados/cejil-condemns-crimes-against-journalists-honduras
63. Roper, Carl A. et. al. "Security education, awareness, and training: from theory to practice." http://www.amazon.com/Security-Education-Awareness-Training-ebook/dp/B000PY3CXS
64. Ekblom, Paul. "Status Report United Kingdom- Crime Prevention Training in the UK." http://www.libri.de/shop/action/productDetails/7502626/
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66. PEN International, "MEXICO: Editor abducted and shot dead." http://www.internationalpen.org.uk/index.cfm?objectid=00B3E140-E0C4-ED84-07B6966C6BA8E8C9
67. AFP, "Sri Lankan journalist abducted, beaten: rights group." http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h4_PDesqNaHziTt5cclPL3MYtS1w
68. IFJ, "IFJ Condemns Attempted Abduction of Journalist Advocate in Uganda." http://africa.ifj.org/en/articles/ifj-condemns-attempted-abduction-of-journalist-advocate-in-uganda
69. UNESCO, "The Safety of Journalists and the Danger of Impunity (2010)." portal.unesco.org/ci/en/files/29600/12690062213safety_of_journalists_27_session.pdf
70. UNESCO, "Press freedom: Safety of journalist and impunity (2007)."
71. Amnesty International, "Challenges." http://www.amnesty.org/en/human-rights-defenders/issues/challenges
Stress and Self-Care
72. Killeen, Jo Anne. "Journalists and PTSD: below the fold." https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/handle/10355/11180
73. Hollings, James. "Reporting the Asian tsunami: Ethical issues." http://www.pjreview.info/issues/docs/11_2/pjr-tsunami-pp151-167.pdf
74. Dworznik, Gretchen. "Preparing for the Worst: Making a Case for Trauma Training in the Journalism Classroom." http://news-business.vlex.com/vid/preparing-trauma-journalism-classroom-64081105
75. NPR, "Helping Journalists Beat Post-Traumatic Stress." http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=105972083&ft=1&f=1020
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84. Wunderle, William D. "Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for US Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries." www.cgsc.edu/carl/download/csipubs/wunderle.pdf
85. AIIC, "AIIC Forum on Interpreters in Conflict Areas." http://www.aiic.net/ViewPage.cfm/page3398.htm
86. Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, "Key security messages for NGO field staff: what and how do NGOs communicate about security in their policies and guidelines?" http://www.odihpn.org/report.asp?id=3125
87. Humanitarian Outcomes, "Supporting Security for Humanitarian Action." http://www.humanitarianoutcomes.org/resources/